Trading

In 2014, TOTAL continued to pursue its strategy of developing operations downstream from natural gas and LNG production. The aim of this strategy is to optimize access for the Group’s current and future production to markets with long-term contracts and to markets open to international competition (with short-term contracts and spot sales). In the context of deregulated markets, which allow customers to access suppliers more freely, in turn leading to marketing arrangements that are more flexible than traditional long-term contracts, TOTAL is developing trading, marketing and logistics businesses to market its natural gas and LNG production directly to customers.

The Group also has operations in electricity trading and the marketing of LPG and coal. Furthermore, TOTAL has marketed the petcoke produced at the Port Arthur refinery in the United States since 2011 and a part of the petcoke produced at the Jubail refinery in Saudi Arabia since 2014.

Gas & Power’s trading teams, which are located in London, Houston, Geneva and Singapore, conduct most of their business through the Group’s wholly-owned subsidiaries Total Gas & Power, Total Gas & Power North America and Total Gas & Power Asia.

Gas and electricity

TOTAL’s gas and electricity trading operations in Europe and North America sell the Group’s production, supply its gas marketing subsidiaries and support other activities of the Group.

In Europe, TOTAL marketed 911 Bcf (25.8 Bm3) of natural gas in 2014 compared to 1,194 Bcf (33.8 Bm3) in 2013 and 1,488 Bcf (42.1 Bm3) in 2012, including approximately 12.1% from its own production in 2014. TOTAL also supplied 44.8 TWh of electricity primarily from external resources in 2014, compared to 53.0 TWh in 2013 and 53.3 TWh in 2012.

In North America, TOTAL marketed 593 Bcf (16.8 Bm3) of natural gas from its own production or external resources in 2014, compared to 938 Bcf (26.6 Bm3) in 2013 and 1,256 Bcf (36 Bm3) in 2012.

LNG

TOTAL has LNG trading operations through spot sales and fixed-term contracts as described in section 2.2.1. of this chapter. Major purchase and sale agreements have significantly helped develop the Group’s LNG marketing operations, particularly in Asia’s most buoyant markets: China, India, Japan, and South Korea. This spot and fixed-term LNG portfolio allows TOTAL to supply gas to its main customers worldwide, while retaining a sufficient degree of flexibility to react to market opportunities.

In 2014, TOTAL purchased 87 contractual cargoes from Qatar, Yemen, Nigeria and Norway and 7 spot cargoes from France, Trinidad & Tobago and Nigeria, compared to, respectively, 89 and 9 in 2013 and 87 and 8 in 2012.

LPG

TOTAL traded and sold approximately 5.5 Mt of LPG (butane and propane) worldwide in 2014, compared to 5.6 Mt in 2013 and 6 Mt in 2012. Approximately 20% of these quantities came from fields or refineries operated by the Group. LPG trading involved the use of 10 time charters, 290 voyages were necessary in 2014 to transport the negotiated quantities, of which 195 voyages were by TOTAL time charters, and 95 by spot charters.

Coal

TOTAL marketed 8.5 Mt of coal on the international market in 2014 the same quantity as in both 2013 and 2012. More than 70% of this coal came from South Africa. Approximately 70% of the volume was sold in Asia, where coal is used primarily to generate electricity. The remaining volume was marketed primarily in Europe.

Petcoke

TOTAL began to market the petcoke produced by the coker at the Port Arthur refinery in the United States in 2011. Approximately 1.3 Mt of petcoke was sold on the international market in 2014, compared to 1.2 Mt in 2013 and 1.1 Mt in 2012, to cement plants and electricity producers mainly in India, Turkey, Mexico, Brazil and other Latin American countries.

In 2014, TOTAL began to market the petcoke produced by the Jubail refinery in Saudi Arabia. Approximately 100 kt was sold
mainly in the Asian market.