1) Accounting policies

Pursuant to the accrual basis of accounting followed by the Group, the financial statements reflect the effects of transactions and other events when they occur. Assets and liabilities such as property, plant and equipment and intangible assets are usually measured at cost. Assets and liabilities are measured at fair value when required by the standards.

Accounting policies used by the Group are described below:

A) Principles of consolidation

Entities that are directly controlled by the parent company or indirectly controlled by other consolidated entities are fully consolidated. 

Investments in joint ventures are consolidated under the equity method. The Group accounts for joint operations by recognizing its share of assets, liabilities, income and expenses.

Investments in associates, in which the Group has significant influence, are accounted for by the equity method. Significant influence is presumed when the Group holds, directly or indirectly (e.g. through subsidiaries), 20% or more of the voting rights. Companies in which ownership interest is less than 20%, but over which the Company is deemed to exercise significant influence, are also accounted for by the equity method.

All internal balances, transactions and income are eliminated.

B) Business combinations

Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method. This method requires the recognition of the acquired identifiable assets, assumed liabilities and any non-controlling interest in the companies acquired by the Group at their fair value.

The value of the purchase price is finalized up to a maximum of one year from the acquisition date.

The acquirer shall recognize goodwill at the acquisition date, being the excess of:

  • The consideration transferred, the amount of non-controlling interests and, in business combinations achieved in stages, the fair value at the acquisition date of the investment previously held in the acquired company;
  • Over the fair value at the acquisition date of acquired identifiable assets and assumed liabilities.

If the consideration transferred is lower than the fair value of acquired identifiable assets and assumed liabilities, an additional analysis is performed on the identification and valuation of the identifiable elements of the assets and liabilities. After having completed such additional analysis any residual negative goodwill is recorded as income.

In transactions with non-controlling interests, the difference between the price paid (received) and the book value of noncontrolling interests acquired (sold) is recognized directly in equity.

C) Foreign currency translation

The financial statements of subsidiaries are prepared in the currency that most clearly reflects their business environment. This is referred to as their functional currency.

(i) Monetary transactions

Transactions denominated in foreign currencies other than the functional currency of the entity are translated at the exchange rate on the transaction date. At each balance sheet date, monetary assets and liabilities are translated at the closing rate and the resulting exchange differences are recognized in the statement of income.

(ii) Translation of financial statements denominated in foreign currencies

Assets and liabilities of foreign entities are translated into dollars on the basis of the exchange rates at the end of the period. The income and cash flow statements are translated using the average exchange rates for the period. Foreign exchange differences resulting from such translations are either recorded in shareholders’ equity under “Currency translation adjustments” (for the Group share) or under “Non-controlling interests” (for the

D) Sales and revenues from sales

Sales figures include excise taxes collected by the Group within the course of its oil distribution operations. Excise taxes are deducted from sales in order to obtain the “Revenues from sales” indicator.

(i) Sale of goods

Revenues from sales are recognized when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been passed to the buyer and when the amount is recoverable and can be reasonably measured.

Revenues from sales of crude oil, natural gas and coal are recorded upon transfer of title, according to the terms of the sales contracts. Revenues from the production of crude oil and natural gas properties, in which the Group has an interest with other producers, are recognized based on actual volumes sold during the period. Any difference between volumes sold and entitlement volumes, based on the Group net working interest, is recognized as “Crude oil and natural gas inventories” or “Other current assets” or “Other creditors and accrued liabilities”, as appropriate.

Quantities delivered that represent production royalties and taxes, when paid in cash, are included in oil and gas sales, except for the United States and Canada.

Certain transactions within the trading activities (contracts involving quantities that are purchased from third parties then resold to third parties) are shown at their net value in sales.

Exchanges of crude oil and petroleum products within normal trading activities do not generate any income and therefore these flows are shown at their net value in both the statement of income and the balance sheet.

(ii) Sale of services

Revenues from services are recognized when the services have been rendered.

Revenues from gas transport are recognized when services are rendered. These revenues are based on the quantities transported and measured according to procedures defined in each service contract.

Shipping revenues and expenses from time-charter activities are recognized on a pro rata basis over a period that commences upon the unloading of the previous voyage and terminates upon the unloading of the current voyage. Shipping revenue recognition starts only when a charter has been agreed to by both the Group and the customer.

(iii) Solar Farm Development Projects

SunPower develops and sells solar farm projects. This activity generally contains a property component (land ownership or an interest in land rights). The revenue associated with the development of these projects is recognized when the entities-projects and land rights are irrevocably sold.

Revenues under contracts for construction of solar systems are recognized based on the progress of construction works, measured according to the percentage of costs incurred relative to total forecast costs.

E) Share-based payments

The Group may grant employees stock options, create employee share purchase plans and offer its employees the opportunity to subscribe to reserved capital increases. These employee benefits are recognized as expenses with a corresponding credit to shareholders’ equity.

The expense is equal to the fair value of the instruments granted.

The expense is recognized on a straight-line basis between the grant date and vesting date.

The fair value of the options is calculated using the Black-Scholes model at the grant date.

For restricted share plans, the fair value is calculated using the market price at the grant date after deducting the expected distribution rate during the vesting period.

The number of allocated equity instruments can be revised during the vesting period in cases of non compliance with performance conditions, with the exception of those related to the market, or according to the rate of turnover of the beneficiaries.

The cost of employee-reserved capital increases is immediately expensed. A discount reduces the expense in order to account for the non-transferability of the shares awarded to the employees over a period of five years.

F) Income taxes

Income taxes disclosed in the statement of income include the current tax expenses (or income) and the deferred tax expenses (or income).

The Group uses the method whereby deferred income taxes are recorded based on the temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities recorded in the balance sheet and their tax bases, and on carry-forwards of unused tax losses and tax credits.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates that have been enacted or substantially enacted at the balance sheet date. The tax rates used depend on the timing of reversals of temporary differences, tax losses and other tax credits. The effect of a change in tax rate is recognized either in the Consolidated statement of income or in shareholders’ equity depending on the item it relates to.

Deferred tax assets are recognized when future recovery is probable. 

Asset retirement obligations and finance leases give rise to the recognition of assets and liabilities for accounting purposes as described in paragraph 1K “Leases” and paragraph 1Q “Asset retirement obligations” of this Note. Deferred income taxes resulting from temporary differences between the carrying amounts and tax bases of such assets and liabilities are recognized.

Deferred tax resulting from temporary differences between the carrying amounts of equity-method investments and their tax bases are recognized. The deferred tax calculation is based on the expected future tax effect (dividend distribution rate or tax rate on capital gains).

G) Earnings per share

Earnings per share is calculated by dividing net income (Group share) by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period, excluding TOTAL shares held by TOTAL S.A. (Treasury shares) and TOTAL shares held by the Group subsidiaries which are deducted from consolidated shareholders’ equity. 

Diluted earnings per share is calculated by dividing net income (Group share) by the fully-diluted weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Treasury shares held by the parent company, TOTAL S.A., and TOTAL shares held by the Group subsidiaries are deducted from consolidated shareholders’ equity. These shares are not considered outstanding for purposes of this calculation which also takes into account the dilutive effect of stock options, share grants and capital increases with a subscription period closing after the end of the fiscal year. 

The weighted-average number of fully-diluted shares is calculated in accordance with the treasury stock method provided for by IAS 33. The proceeds, which would be recovered in the event of an exercise of rights related to dilutive instruments, are presumed to be a share buyback at the average market price over the period. The number of shares thereby obtained leads to a reduction in the total number of shares that would result from the exercise of rights.

H) Oil and gas exploration and producing properties

Geological and geophysical costs, including seismic surveys for exploration purposes are expensed as incurred.

Mineral interests are capitalized as intangible assets when acquired. These acquired interests are tested for impairment on a regular basis, property-by-property, based on the results of the exploratory activity and the management’s evaluation. 

In the event of a discovery, the unproved mineral interests are transferred to proved mineral interests at their net book value as soon as proved reserves are booked.

Exploratory wells are tested for impairment on a well-by-well basis and accounted for as follows:

  • Costs of exploratory wells which result in proved reserves are capitalized and then depreciated using the unit-of-production method based on proved developed reserves;
  • Costs of dry wells and wells that have not found proved reserves are charged to expense;
  • Costs of exploratory wells are temporarily capitalized until a determination is made as to whether the well has found proved reserves if both of the following conditions are met:
    • the well has found a sufficient quantity of reserves to justify, if appropriate, its completion as a producing well, assuming that the required capital expenditures are made,
    • the Group is making sufficient progress assessing the reserves and the economic and operating viability of the project. This progress is evaluated on the basis of indicators such as whether additional exploratory works are under way or firmly planned (wells, seismic or significant studies), whether costs are being incurred for development studies and whether the Group is waiting for governmental or other third-party authorization of a proposed project, or availability of capacity on an existing transport or processing facility.

Costs of exploratory wells not meeting these conditions are charged to expense.

(ii) Oil and Gas producing assets

Development costs incurred for the drilling of development wells and for the construction of production facilities are capitalized, together with borrowing costs incurred during the period of construction and the present value of estimated future costs of asset retirement obligations. The depletion rate is usually equal to the ratio of oil and gas production for the period to proved developed reserves (unit-of-production method). 

With respect to production sharing contracts, this computation is based on the portion of production and reserves assigned to the Group taking into account estimates based on the contractual clauses regarding the reimbursement of exploration, development and production costs (cost oil) as well as the sharing of hydrocarbon rights (profit oil). 

Transportation assets are depreciated using the unit-of-production method based on throughput or by using the straight-line method whichever best reflects the duration of use of the economic life of the asset. 

Proved mineral interests are depreciated using the unit-of-production method based on proved reserves.

I) Goodwill and other intangible assets excluding mineral interests

Other intangible assets include goodwill, patents, trademarks, and lease rights.

Intangible assets are carried at cost, after deducting any accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses.

Guidance for calculating goodwill is presented in Note 1) "Accounting policies" paragraph B) "Business combinations" to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Goodwill is not amortized but is tested for impairment annually or as soon as there is any indication of impairment (see Note 1) "Accounting policies" paragraph L) "Impairment of long-lived assets" to the Consolidated Financial Statements).

In equity affiliates, goodwill is included in the investment book value.

Other intangible assets (except goodwill) have a finite useful life and are amortized on a straight-line basis over 3 to 20 years depending on the useful life of the assets.

Research and development

Research costs are charged to expense as incurred.

Development expenses are capitalized when the following can be demonstrated:

  • the technical feasibility of the project and the availability of the adequate resources for the completion of the intangible asset
  • the ability of the asset to generate probable future economic benefits;
  • the ability to measure reliably the expenditures attributable to the asset; and
  • the feasibility and intention of the Group to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it.

Advertising costs are charged to expense as incurred.

J) Other property, plant and equipment

Other property, plant and equipment are carried at cost, after deducting any accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. This cost includes borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition or production of a qualifying asset incurred until assets are placed in service. Borrowing costs are capitalized as follows:

  • if the project benefits from a specific funding, the capitalization of borrowing costs is based on the borrowing rate;
  • if the project is financed by all the Group’s debt, the capitalization of borrowing costs is based on the weighted average borrowing cost for the period.

Routine maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred. The costs of major turnarounds of refineries and large petrochemical units are capitalized as incurred and depreciated over the period of time between two consecutive major turnarounds.

Other property, plant and equipment are depreciated using the straight-line method over their useful lives, which are as follows:

Table : Other property, plant and equipment

K) Leases

A finance lease transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership from the lessor to the lessee. These contracts are capitalized as assets at fair value or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments according to the contract.
A corresponding financial debt is recognized as a financial liability. These assets are depreciated over the corresponding useful life used by the Group.

Leases that are not finance leases as defined above are recorded as operating leases.

Certain arrangements do not take the legal form of a lease but convey the right to use an asset or a group of assets in return for fixed payments. Such arrangements are accounted for as leases and are analyzed to determine whether they should be classified as operating leases or as finance leases.

L) Impairment of long-lived assets

The recoverable amounts of intangible assets and property, plant and equipment are tested for impairment as soon as any indication of impairment exists. This test is performed at least annually for goodwill. 

The recoverable amount is the higher of the fair value (less costs to sell) or its value in use.

Assets are grouped into cash-generating units (or CGUs) and tested. A cash-generating unit is a homogeneous group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other groups of assets.

The value in use of a CGU is determined by reference to the discounted expected future cash flows, based upon the management’s expectation of future economic and operating conditions. When this value is less than the carrying amount of the CGU, an impairment loss is recorded. It is allocated first to goodwill in counterpart of “Other expenses”. These impairment losses are then allocated to “Depreciation, depletion and amortization of tangible assets and mineral interests” for property, plant and mineral interests and to “Other expenses” for other intangible assets.

Impairment losses recognized in prior periods can be reversed up to the original carrying amount, had the impairment loss not been recognized. Impairment losses recognized for goodwill cannot be reversed.

M) Financial assets and liabilities

Financial assets and liabilities are financial loans and receivables, investments in non-consolidated companies, publicly traded equity securities, derivatives instruments and current and non-current financial liabilities.

The accounting treatment of these financial assets and liabilities is as follows:

(i) Loans and receivables

Financial loans and receivables are recognized at amortized cost. They are tested for impairment, by comparing the carrying amount of the assets to estimates of the discounted future recoverable cash flows. These tests are conducted as soon as there is any evidence that their fair value is less than their carrying amount, and at least annually. Any impairment loss is recorded in the statement of income.

(ii) Other investments

These assets are classified as financial assets available for sale and therefore measured at their fair value. For listed securities, this fair value is equal to the market price. For unlisted securities, if the fair value is not reliably determinable, securities are recorded at their historical value. Changes in fair value are recorded in shareholders’ equity. If there is any evidence of a significant or long-lasting impairment loss, a loss is recorded in the statement of income. This impairment is irreversible.

(iii) Derivative instruments

The Group uses derivative instruments to manage its exposure to risks of changes in interest rates, foreign exchange rates and commodity prices. Changes in fair value of derivative instruments are recognized in the statement of income or in shareholders’ equity and are recognized in the balance sheet in the accounts corresponding to their nature, according to the risk management strategy described in Note 31) "Financial risks management" to the Consolidated Financial Statements. The derivative instruments used by the Group are the following:

• Cash management

Financial instruments used for cash management purposes are part of a hedging strategy of currency and interest rate risks within global limits set by the Group and are considered to be used for transactions (held for trading). Changes in fair value are systematically recorded in the statement of income. The balance sheet value of those instruments is included in “Current financial assets” or “Other current financial liabilities”.

• Long-term financing

When an external long-term financing is set up, specifically to finance subsidiaries, and when this financing involves currency and interest rate derivatives, these instruments are qualified as:

  1. Fair value hedge of the interest rate risk on the external debt and of the currency risk of the loans to subsidiaries. Changes in fair value of derivatives are recognized in the statement of income as are changes in fair value of underlying financial debts and loans to subsidiaries.
    The fair value of those hedging instruments of long-term financing is included in the assets under “Hedging instruments on non-current financial debt” or in the liabilities under “Non-current financial debt “for the non-current portion. The current portion (less than one year) is accounted for in “Current financial assets” or “Other current financial liabilities”.
    In case of the anticipated termination of derivative instruments accounted for as fair value hedges, the amount paid or received is recognized in the statement of income and:
    • - If this termination is due to an early cancellation of the hedged items, the adjustment previously recorded as revaluation of those hedged items is also recognized in the statement of income;
    • - If the hedged items remain in the balance sheet, the adjustment previously recorded as a revaluation of those hedged items is spread over the remaining life of those items.
  2. Cash flow hedge of the currency risk of the external debt. Changes in fair value are recorded in Other comprehensive Income for the effective portion of the hedging and in the statement of income for the ineffective portion of the hedging. Amounts recorded in equity are transferred to the income statement when the hedged transaction affects profit or loss.
    The fair value of those hedging instruments of long-term financing is included in the assets under “Hedging instruments on non-current financial debt” or in the liabilities under “Non-current financial debt” for the non-current portion. The current portion (less than one year) is accounted for in “Current financial assets” or “Other current financial liabilities”.
    If the hedging instrument expires, is sold or terminated by anticipation, gains or losses previously recognized in equity remain in equity. Amounts are recycled in the income statement only when the hedged transaction affects profit or loss.

• Foreign subsidiaries’ equity hedge

Certain financial instruments hedge against risks related to the equity of foreign subsidiaries whose functional currency is not the euro (mainly the dollar). These instruments qualify as “net investment hedges” and changes in fair value are recorded in Other comprehensive income for the effective portion of the hedging and in the statement of income for the ineffective portion of the hedging. Gains or losses on hedging instruments previously recorded in equity, are reclassified to the statement of income in the same period as the total or partial disposal of the foreign activity. 

The fair value of these instruments is recorded under “Current financial assets” or “Other current financial liabilities”.

• Financial instruments related to commodity contracts

Financial instruments related to commodity contracts, including crude oil, petroleum products, gas, power and coal purchase/sales contracts within the trading activities, together with the commodity contract derivative instruments such as energy contracts and forward freight agreements, are used to adjust the Group’s exposure to price fluctuations within global trading limits. According to the industry practice, these instruments are considered as held for trading. Changes in fair value are recorded in the statement of income. The fair value of these instruments is recorded in “Other current assets” or “Other creditors and accrued liabilities” depending on whether they are assets or liabilities.

Detailed information about derivatives positions is disclosed in Notes 20) "Financial debt and related financial instruments", 28) "Financial assets and liabilities analysis per instruments class and strategy", 29) "Fair value of financial instruments (excluding commodity contracts)", 30) "Financial instruments related to commodity contracts" and 31) "Financial risks management" to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

(iv) Current and non-current financial liabilities

Current and non-current financial liabilities (excluding derivatives) are recognized at amortized cost, except those for which hedge accounting can be applied as described in the previous paragraph.

(v) Fair value of financial instruments

Fair values are estimated for the majority of the Group’s financial instruments, with the exception of publicly traded equity securities and marketable securities for which the market price is used.

Estimations of fair value, which are based on principles such as discounting future cash flows to present value, must be weighted by the fact that the value of a financial instrument at a given time may be influenced by the market environment (liquidity especially), and also the fact that subsequent changes in interest rates and exchange rates are not taken into account.

As a consequence, the use of different estimates, methodologies and assumptions could have a material effect on the estimated fair value amounts.

The methods used are as follows:

• Financial debts, swaps

The market value of swaps and of bonds that are hedged by those swaps has been determined on an individual basis by discounting future cash flows with the zero coupon interest rate curves existing at year-end.

• Financial instruments related to commodity contracts

The valuation methodology is to mark to market all open positions for both physical and paper transactions. The valuations are determined on a daily basis using observable market data based on organized and over the counter (OTC) markets. In particular cases when market data are not directly available, the valuations are derived from observable data such as arbitrages, freight or spreads and market corroboration. For valuation of risks which are the result of a calculation, such as options for example, commonly known models are used to compute the fair value.

• Other financial instruments

The fair value of the interest rate swaps and of FRA’s (Forward Rate Agreements) are calculated by discounting future cash flows on the basis of zero coupon interest rate curves existing at year-end after adjustment for interest accrued but unpaid.

Forward exchange contracts and currency swaps are valued on the basis of a comparison of the negociated forward rates with the rates in effect on the financial markets at year-end for similar maturities.

Exchange options are valued based on the Garman-Kohlhagen model including market quotations at year-end.

• Fair value hierarchy

IFRS 7 “Financial instruments: disclosures”, amended in 2009, introduces a fair value hierarchy for financial instruments and proposes the following three-level classification:

  • level 1: quotations for assets and liabilities (identical to the ones that are being valued) obtained at the valuation date on an active market to which the entity has access;
  • level 2: the entry data are observable data but do not correspond to quotations for identical assets or liabilities;
  • level 3: the entry data are not observable data. For example: these data come from extrapolation. This level applies when there is no market or observable data and the company has to use its own hypotheses to estimate the data that other market players would have used to determine the fair value of the asset.

Fair value hierarchy is disclosed in Notes 29) "Fair value of financial instruments (excluding commodity contracts)" and 30) "Financial instruments related to commodity contracts" to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

(vi) Commitments to purchase shares held by non-controlling interests (put options written on minority interests)

Put options granted to non-controlling-interest shareholders are initially recognized as financial liabilities at the present value of the exercise price of the options with a corresponding reduction in shareholders’ equity. The financial liability is subsequently measured at fair value at each balance sheet date in accordance with contractual clauses and any variation is recorded in the statement of income (cost of debt).

N) Inventories

Inventories are measured in the Consolidated Financial Statements at the lower of historical cost or market value. Costs for petroleum and petrochemical products are determined according to the FIFO (First-In, First-Out) method and other inventories are measured using the weighted-average cost method. In addition stocks held for trading are measured at fair value less costs of sale.

Refining & Chemicals

Petroleum product inventories are mainly comprised of crude oil and refined products. Refined products principally consist of gasoline, kerosene, diesel, fuel oil and heating oil produced by the Group’s refineries. The turnover of petroleum products does not exceed more than two months on average.

Crude oil costs include raw material and receiving costs. Refining costs principally include crude oil costs, production costs (energy, labor, depreciation of producing assets) and an allocation of production overheads (taxes, maintenance, insurance, etc.).

Costs of chemical product inventories consist of raw material costs, direct labor costs and an allocation of production overheads. Start-up costs, general administrative costs and financing costs are excluded from the cost price of refined and chemicals products.

Marketing & Services

The costs of refined products include mainly crude oil costs, production costs (energy, labor, depreciation of producing assets) and an allocation of production overheads (taxes, maintenance, insurance, etc.).

Start-up costs, general administrative costs and financing costs are excluded from the cost price of refined products.

Product inventories purchased from entities external to the Group are valued at their purchase cost plus primary costs of transport.

O) Treasury shares

Treasury shares of the parent company held by its subsidiaries or itself are deducted from consolidated shareholders’ equity. Gains or losses on sales of treasury shares are excluded from the determination of net income and are recognized in shareholders’ equity.

P) Provisions and other non-current liabilities

A provision is recognized when the Group has a present obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event for which it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required and when a reliable estimate can be made regarding the amount of the obligation. The amount of the liability corresponds to the best possible estimate. 

Provisions and non-current liabilities are comprised of liabilities for which the amount and the timing are uncertain. They arise from environmental risks, legal and tax risks, litigation and other risks.

Q) Asset retirement obligations

Asset retirement obligations, which result from a legal or constructive obligation, are recognized based on a reasonable estimate in the period in which the obligation arises.

The associated asset retirement costs are capitalized as part of the carrying amount of the underlying asset and depreciated over the useful life of this asset.

An entity is required to measure changes in the liability for an asset retirement obligation due to the passage of time (accretion) by applying a risk-free discount rate to the amount of the liability. The increase of the provision due to the passage of time is recognized as “Other financial expense”.

R) Employee benefits

In accordance with the laws and practices of each country, the Group participates in employee benefit plans offering retirement, death and disability, healthcare and special termination benefits. These plans provide benefits based on various factors such as length of service, salaries, and contributions made to the governmental bodies responsible for the payment of benefits.

These plans can be either defined contribution or defined benefit pension plans and may be entirely or partially funded with investments made in various non-Group instruments such as mutual funds, insurance contracts, and other instruments.

For defined contribution plans, expenses correspond to the contributions paid.

Defined benefit obligations are determined according to the Projected Unit Method. Actuarial gains and losses may arise from differences between actuarial valuation and projected commitments (depending on new calculations or assumptions) and between projected and actual return of plan assets. Such gains and losses are recognized in the statement of comprehensive income, with no possibility to subsequently recycle them to the income statement.

The past service cost is recorded immediately in the statement of income, whether vested or unvested.

The net periodic pension cost is recognized under “Other operating expenses”.

S) Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows

The Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows prepared in foreign currencies has been translated into euros using the exchange rate on the transaction date or the average exchange rate for the period. Currency translation differences arising from the translation of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency into euros using the closing exchange rates are shown in the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows under “Effect of exchange rates”. Therefore, the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows will not agree with the figures derived from the Consolidated Balance Sheet.

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents are comprised of cash on hand and highly liquid short-term investments that are easily convertible into known amounts of cash and are subject to insignificant risks of changes in value.

Investments with maturities greater than three months and less than twelve months are shown under “Current financial assets”.

Changes in current financial assets and liabilities are included in the financing activities section of the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows.

Non-current financial debt

Changes in non-current financial debt are presented as the net variation to reflect significant changes mainly related to revolving credit agreements.

T) Carbon dioxide emission rights

In the absence of a current IFRS standard or interpretation on accounting for emission rights of carbon dioxide, the following principles are applied:

  • Emission rights are managed as a cost of production and as such are recognized in inventories:
    • emission rights allocated for free are booked in inventories with a nil carrying amount;
    • purchased emission rights are booked at acquisition cost;
    • sales or annual restorations of emission rights consist of decreases in inventories recognized based on a weighted average cost;
    • if the carrying amount of inventories at closing date is higher than the market value, an impairment loss is recorded.
  • At each closing, a provision is recorded in order to materialize the obligation of emission rights restoration related to the emissions of the period. This provision is calculated based on estimated emissions of the period, valued at weighted average cost of the inventories at the end of the period. It is reversed when the emission rights are restored.
  • If emission rights to be delivered at the end of the compliance period are higher than emission rights (allocated and purchased) booked in inventories, the shortage is accounted for as a liability at market value.
  • Forward transactions are recognized at their fair market value in the balance sheet. Changes in the fair value of such forward transactions are recognized in the statement of income.

U) Energy savings certificates

In the absence of current IFRS standards or interpretations on accounting for energy savings certificates, the following principles are applied:

  • If the obligations linked to the sales of energy are greater than the number of ESC’s held then a liability is recorded. These liabilities are valued based on the price of the last transactions.
  • In the event that the number of ESC’s held exceeds the obligation at the balance sheet date this is accounted for as inventory. 
  • ESC inventories are valued at weighted average cost (acquisition cost for those ESC’s acquired or cost incurred for those ESC’s generated internally).

If the carrying value of the inventory of certificates at the balance sheet date is higher than the market value, an impairment loss is recorded in income.

V) Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations

Pursuant to IFRS 5 “Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations”, assets and liabilities of affiliates that are held for sale are presented separately on the face of the balance sheet. Depreciation of assets ceases from the date of classification in “Non-current assets held for sale”.

Net income from discontinued operations is presented separately on the face of the statement of income. Therefore, the notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements related to the statement of income only refer to continuing operations.

A discontinued operation is a component of the Group for which cash flows are independent. It represents a major line of business or geographical area of operations which has been disposed of or is currently being held for sale.

W) New accounting principles not yet in effect

The standards or interpretations published respectively by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) which were not yet in effect at December 31, 2014, are as follows:

Standards not yet adopted by the European Union at December 31, 2014

  • In May 2014, the IASB issued standard IFRS 15 that includes requirements for the recognition of revenue from contracts with customers. The standard is applicable for annual periods starting on or after January 1, 2017. The impacts of the application of this standard are under review. 
  • In July 2014, the IASB issued standard IFRS 9 “Financial Instruments” that includes requirements for the recognition and measurement of financial instruments. This standard brings together three phases: classification and measurement, impairment of financial assets and hedge accounting excluding macro-hedging. The standard is applicable for annual periods starting on or after January 1, 2018. The impacts of the application of this standard are under review.