Rights, privileges and restrictions attached to the shares

In addition to the right to vote, each share entitles the holder to a portion of the corporate assets, distributions of profits and liquidation dividend which is proportional to the number of shares issued, subject to the laws and regulations in force and the bylaws.

With the exception of double voting rights, no privilege is attached to a specific class of shares or to a specific class of shareholders.

Double voting rights

Double voting rights, in relation to the portion of share capital they represent, are granted to all fully paid-up registered shares held continuously in the name of the same shareholder for at least two years(1), and to additional registered shares allotted to a shareholder in connection with a capital increase by capitalization of reserves, profits or premiums on the basis of the existing shares which entitle the shareholder to a double voting right.

Limitation of voting rights

Article 18 of the Company’s bylaws provides that at Shareholders’ Meetings, no shareholder may cast, by himself or through his agent, on the basis of the single voting rights attached to the shares he holds directly or indirectly and the shares for which he holds powers, more than 10% of the total number of voting rights attached to the Company’s shares. In the case of double voting rights, by himself or through his agent, this limit may be exceeded, taking only the resulting additional voting rights into account, provided that the total voting rights that he exercises do not exceed 20% of the total voting rights associated with the shares in the Company. 

Moreover, Article 18 of the bylaws also provides that the limitation on voting rights no longer applies, absent any decision of the Shareholders’ Meeting, if an individual or a legal entity acting solely or together with one or more individuals or entities acquires at least two-thirds of the Company’s shares following a public tender offer for all the Company’s shares. In that case, the Board of Directors acknowledges that the limitation no longer applies and carries out the necessary procedure to modify the Company’s bylaws accordingly. 

Once acknowledged, the fact that the limitation no longer applies is final and applies to all Shareholders’ Meetings following the public tender offer under which the acquisition of at least two-third of the overall number of shares of the Company was made possible, and not solely to the first meeting following that public tender offer.

Because of the fact that in such circumstances the limitation no longer applies, such limitation on voting rights cannot prevent or delay any takeover of the Company, except in case of a public tender offer where the bidder does not acquire at least two-thirds of the Company’s shares.

Fractional rights

Whenever it is necessary to own several shares in order to exercise a right, a number of shares less than the number required does not give the owners any right with respect to the Company; in such case, the shareholders are responsible for aggregating the required number of shares.

Statutory allocation of profits

The net profit for the period is equal to the net income minus general expenses and other personnel expenses, all amortization and depreciation of the assets, and all provisions for commercial and industrial contingencies.

From this profit, minus prior losses, if any, the following items are deducted in the order indicated:

  1. 5% to constitute the legal reserve fund, until said fund reaches 10% of the share capital;
  2. the amounts set by the Shareholders’ Meeting to fund reserves for which it determines the allocation or use; and 
  3. the amounts that the Shareholders’ Meeting decides to retain.

The remainder is paid to the shareholders as dividends.

The Board of Directors may pay interim dividends.

The Shareholders’ Meeting held to approve the financial statements for the fiscal year may decide to grant shareholders an option, for all or part of the dividend or interim dividends, between payment of the dividend in cash or in shares.

The Shareholders’ Meeting may decide at any time, but only based on a proposal by the Board of Directors, to make a full or partial distribution of the amounts in the reserve accounts, either in cash or in Company shares.

Dividends which have not been claimed at the end of a 5-year period are forfeited to the French government.


(1) This term is not interrupted and the right acquired is retained in case of a conversion of bearer to bearer pursuant to intestate or testamentary succession, share of community property between spouses or donation to the spouse or relatives entitled to inherit (Article 18 § 6 of by laws).