Credit risk

Credit risk is defined as the risk of the counterparty to a contract failing to perform or pay the amounts due.

The Group is exposed to credit risks in its operating and financing activities. The Group’s maximum exposure to credit risk is partially related to financial assets recorded on its balance sheet, including energy derivative instruments that have a positive market value.

The following table presents the Group’s maximum credit risk exposure:

Table : Assets/(Liabilities) as of December 31 (M€) - Credit risk

The valuation allowance on loans and advances and on accounts receivable and other operating receivables is detailed respectively in Notes 14 and 16 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

As part of its credit risk management related to operating and financing activities, the Group has developed margin call contracts with certain counterparties. As of December 31, 2014, the net amount received as part of these margin calls was $1,437 million (compared to $1,105 million as of December 31, 2013 and $2,157 million as of December 31, 2012).

The Group has established a number of programs for the sale of trade receivables, without recourse, with various banks, primarily to reduce its exposure to such receivables. As a result of these programs the Group retains no risk of payment default after the sale, but may continue to service the customer accounts as part of a service arrangement on behalf of the buyer and is required to pay to the buyer payments it receives from the customers relating to the receivables sold. As of December 31, 2014, the net value of receivables sold amounted to $3,036 million. No financial asset or liability remains recognized in the consolidated balance sheet after the date of sale.

Credit risk is managed by the Group’s business segments as follows:

Upstream Segment

Exploration & Production

Risks arising under contracts with government authorities or other oil companies or under long-term supply contracts necessary for the development of projects are evaluated during the project approval process. The long-term aspect of these contracts and the high-quality of the other parties lead to a low level of credit risk.

Risks related to commercial operations, other than those described above (which are, in practice, directly monitored by subsidiaries), are subject to procedures for establishing and reviewing credit.

Customer receivables are subject to provisions on a case-bycase basis, based on prior history and management’s assessment of the facts and circumstances.

Gas & Power

Gas & Power deals with counterparties in the energy, industrial and financial sectors throughout the world. Financial institutions providing credit risk coverage are highly rated international bank and insurance groups.

Potential counterparties are subject to credit assessment and approval before concluding transactions and are thereafter subject to regular review, including re-appraisal and approval of the limits previously granted.

The creditworthiness of counterparties is assessed based on an
analysis of quantitative and qualitative data regarding financial
standing and business risks, together with the review of any
relevant third party and market information, such as data published
by rating agencies. On this basis, credit limits are defined for
each potential counterparty and, where appropriate, transactions
are subject to specific authorizations.

Credit exposure, which is essentially an economic exposure or an expected future physical exposure, is permanently monitored and subject to sensitivity measures.

Credit risk is mitigated by the systematic use of industry standard contractual frameworks that permit netting, enable requiring added security in case of adverse change in the counterparty risk, and allow for termination of the contract upon occurrence of certain events of default.

Refining & Chemicals segment

Refining & Chemicals

Credit risk is primarily related to commercial receivables. Internal procedures of Refining & Chemicals include rules for the management of credit describing the fundamentals of internal control in this domain. Each division implements procedures for managing and provisioning credit risk that differ based on the size of the subsidiary and the market in which it operates.
The principal elements of these procedures are:

  • implementation of credit limits with different authorization procedures for possible credit overruns,
  • use of insurance policies or specific guarantees (letters of credit),
  • regular monitoring and assessment of overdue accounts (aging balance), including collection procedures, and
  • provisioning of bad debts on a customer-by-customer basis, according to payment delays and local payment practices (provisions may also be calculated based on statistics).

Counterparties are subject to credit assessment and approval prior to any transaction being concluded. Regular reviews are made for all active counterparties including a re-appraisal and renewing of the granted credit limits. The limits of the counterparties are assessed based on quantitative and qualitative data regarding financial standing, together with the review of any relevant third party and market information, such as that provided by rating agencies and insurance companies.

Trading & Shipping

Trading & Shipping deals with commercial counterparties and financial institutions located throughout the world. Counterparties to physical and derivative transactions are primarily entities involved in the oil and gas industry or in the trading of energy commodities, or financial institutions. Credit risk coverage is concluded with financial institutions, international banks and insurance groups selected in accordance with strict criteria.

Trading & Shipping has a strict policy of internal delegation of authority governing establishment of country and counterparty credit limits and approval of specific transactions. Credit exposures contracted under these limits and approvals are monitored on a daily basis.

Potential counterparties are subject to credit assessment and approval prior to any transaction being concluded and all active counterparties are subject to regular reviews, including re-appraisal and approval of granted limits. The creditworthiness of counterparties is assessed based on an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data regarding financial standing and business risks, together with the review of any relevant third party and market information, such as ratings published by Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s and other agencies.

Contractual arrangements are structured so as to maximize the risk mitigation benefits of netting between transactions wherever possible and additional protective terms providing for the provision of security in the event of financial deterioration and the termination of transactions on the occurrence of defined default events are used to the greatest permitted extent.

Credit risks in excess of approved levels are secured by means of letters of credit and other guarantees, cash deposits and insurance arrangements. In respect of derivative transactions, risks are secured by margin call contracts wherever possible.

Marketing & Services segment

Internal procedures for the Marketing & Services division include rules on credit risk that describe the basis of internal control in this domain, including the separation of authority between commercial and financial operations. Credit policies are defined at the local level, complemented by the implementation of procedures to monitor customer risk (credit committees at the subsidiary level, the creation of credit limits for corporate customers, portfolio guarantees, etc.).

Each entity also implements monitoring of its outstanding receivables. Risks related to credit may be mitigated or limited by subscription of credit insurance and / or requiring security or guarantees.

Bad debts are provisioned on a case-by-case basis at a rate determined by management based on an assessment of the risk of credit loss.