Risks related to economic or political factors

TOTAL has significant production and reserves located in politically, economically and socially unstable areas, where the likelihood of material disruption of the Group’s operations is relatively high.

A significant portion of TOTAL’s oil and gas production and reserves is located in countries outside of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). In recent years, a number of these countries have experienced varying degrees of one or more of the following: economic instability, political volatility, civil war, violent conflict, social unrest, actions of terrorist groups and the application of international economic sanctions. Any of these conditions alone or in combination could disrupt the Group’s operations in any of these regions, causing substantial declines in production or revisions to reserves estimates. In Africa, which represented 31% of the Group’s 2014 combined liquids and gas production, certain of the countries in which the Group has production have recently suffered from some of these conditions, including Nigeria, which has been the main contributing country to the Group’s production of hydrocarbons since 2012, and Libya. The Middle East, which represented 18% of the Group’s 2014 combined liquids and gas production, has in recent years suffered increased political volatility in connection with violent conflict and social unrest, including Syria, where European Union (EU) and U.S. economic sanctions have prohibited TOTAL from producing oil and gas since 2011, and Yemen. In South America, which represented 7% of the Group’s 2014 combined liquids and gas production, certain of the countries in which TOTAL has production have recently suffered from some of the above-mentioned conditions, including Argentina and Venezuela. In Russia, where, as of December 31, 2014, the Group held 19% of its proved reserves, members of the international community have, since July 2014, adopted economic sanctions against certain Russian persons and entities, including various entities operating in the financial, energy and defense sectors, in response to the situation in Ukraine (for additional information, refer to point of this chapter). Furthermore, in addition to current production, TOTAL is also exploring for and developing new reserves in other regions of the world that are historically characterized by political, social and economic instability, such as the Caspian Sea region where TOTAL has large projects currently underway. The occurrence and magnitude of incidents related to economic, social and political instability are unpredictable. It is possible that they could have a material adverse impact on the Group’s production and operations in the future and / or cause certain investors to reduce their holdings of TOTAL’s securities.

TOTAL, like other major international energy companies, has a geographically diverse portfolio of reserves and operational sites, which allows it to conduct its business and financial affairs so as to reduce its exposure to political and economic risks. However, there can be no assurance that such events will not have a material adverse impact on the Group.

TOTAL’s activities are subject to intervention by the government of host countries, which could have an adverse effect on the Group’s results of operations.

TOTAL has significant exploration and production activities, and in some cases refining, marketing or chemicals operations, in countries whose governmental and regulatory framework is subject to unexpected change and where the enforcement of contractual rights is uncertain. In addition, the Group’s exploration and production activities in such countries are often done in conjunction with stateowned entities, for example as part of a joint venture, where the state has a significant degree of control. In recent years, in various regions globally, TOTAL has seen governments and state-owned enterprises imposing more stringent conditions on companies pursuing exploration and production activities in their respective countries, increasing the costs and uncertainties of the Group’s business operations, which is a trend TOTAL expects to continue.

Potential increasing intervention by governments in such countries can take a wide variety of forms, including:

  • the award or denial of exploration and production interests;
  • the imposition of specific drilling obligations;
  • price and / or production quota controls and export limits;
  • nationalization or expropriation of assets;
  • unilateral cancellation or modification of license or contract rights;
  • increases in taxes and royalties, including retroactive claims;
  • the renegotiation of contracts;
  • the imposition of increased local content requirements;
  • payment delays; and
  • currency exchange restrictions or currency devaluation.

Imposition of any of these factors by a host government where TOTAL has substantial operations, including exploration, could cause the Group to incur material costs or cause the Group’s production or value of the Group’s assets to decrease, potentially having a material adverse effect on its results of operations, including profits.

For example, the Nigerian government has been contemplating new legislation to govern the petroleum industry which, if passed into law, could have an impact on the existing and future activities of the Group in that country through increased taxes and / or costs of operation and could adversely affect financial returns from projects in that country.