Risks related to oil and gas exploration and production

The Group’s long-term profitability depends on cost effective discovery, acquisition and development of new reserves; if the Group is unsuccessful, its results of operations and financial condition would be materially and adversely affected.

A significant portion of the Group’s revenues and the majority of its operating results are derived from the sale of oil and gas that the Group extracts from underground reserves developed as part of its Exploration & Production activities. The development of oil and gas fields, the construction of facilities and the drilling of production or injection wells is capital intensive and requires advanced technology. Due to constantly changing market conditions and difficult environmental challenges, cost projections can be uncertain. In order for the Upstream segment to continue to be profitable, the Group needs to replace its reserves with new proved reserves. Furthermore, the Group needs to accomplish such replacement in a manner that allows subsequent production to be economically viable. However, TOTAL’s ability to discover or acquire and develop new reserves successfully is uncertain and can be negatively affected by a number of factors, including:

  • the geological nature of oil and gas fields, notably unexpected drilling conditions including pressure or irregularities in geological formations;
  • the risk of dry holes or failure to find expected commercial quantities of hydrocarbons;
  • the inability of service companies to deliver on contracted services;
  • the inability of the Group’s partners to execute or finance projects in which the Group holds an interest;
  • equipment failures, fires, blow-outs or accidents;
  • the Group’s inability to develop or implement new technologies that enable access to previously inaccessible fields;
  • the Group’s inability to anticipate market changes in a timely manner;
  • adverse weather conditions;
  • compliance with both anticipated and unanticipated governmental requirements, including U.S. and EU regulations that may give a competitive advantage to companies not subject to such regulations;
  • shortages or delays in the availability or delivery of appropriate equipment;
  • industrial action;
  • competition from oil and gas companies for the acquisition and development of assets and licenses (refer to point 3.10. “Risks related to Competition”);
  • increased taxes and royalties, including retroactive claims; and
  • disputes related to property titles.

Any of these factors could lead to cost overruns and impair the Group’s ability to make discoveries and acquisitions or complete a development project, or to make production economical. It is impossible to guarantee that new reserves of oil and gas will be discovered or acquired in sufficient quantities to replace the Group’s reserves currently being developed, produced and marketed.

Furthermore, some of these factors may also affect the Group’s projects and facilities further down the oil and gas chain. If TOTAL fails to develop new reserves cost-effectively on an ongoing basis, the Group’s results of operations, including profits, and the Group’s financial condition, would be materially and adversely affected.

The Group’s oil and gas reserves data are only estimates and subsequent downward adjustments are possible. If actual production from such reserves is lower than current estimates indicate, the Group’s results of operations and financial condition would be negatively impacted.

The Group’s proved reserves figures are estimates reflecting applicable reporting regulations. Proved reserves are those reserves which, by analysis of geosciences and engineering data, can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be economically recoverable – from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under existing economic conditions, operating methods and government regulations – prior to the time at which contracts providing the right to operate expire, unless evidence indicates that renewal is reasonably certain, regardless of whether deterministic or probabilistic methods are used for the estimation. Reserves are estimated by teams of qualified, experienced and trained geoscientists, petroleum engineers and project engineers, who rigorously review and analyze in detail all available geosciences and engineering data (e.g., seismic, electrical logs, cores, fluids, pressures, flow rates, facilities parameters). This process involves making subjective judgments, including with respect to the estimate of hydrocarbons initially in place, initial production rates and recovery efficiency, based on available geological, technical and economic data. Consequently, estimates of reserves are not exact measurements and are subject to revision. In addition, they may be negatively impacted by a variety of factors that are beyond the Group’s control and that could cause such estimates to be adjusted downward in the future, or cause the Group’s actual production to be lower than its currently reported proved reserves indicate. The main such factors include:

  • a decline in the price of oil or gas, making reserves no longer economically viable to exploit and therefore not classifiable as proved;
  • an increase in the price of oil or gas, which may reduce the reserves to which the Group is entitled under production sharing and risked service contracts and other contractual terms;
  • changes in tax rules and other government regulations that make reserves no longer economically viable to exploit; and
  • the actual production performance of the Group’s reservoirs.

The Group’s proved reserves based on SEC rules were 11,523 Mboe at December 31, 2014, based on the average monthly Brent price of $101.3/b. If the Brent price were to continue to remain low in 2015 compared to 2014, proved reserves at year-end 2015 could decline.

The Group’s reserves estimates may therefore require substantial downward revisions to the extent its subjective judgments prove not to have been conservative enough based on the available geosciences and engineering data, or the Group’s assumptions regarding factors or variables that are beyond its control prove to be incorrect over time. Any downward adjustment would indicate lower future production amounts, which could adversely affect the Group’s results of operations, including profits as well as its financial condition.