Occupational health and safety
For many years, the Group has been developing a normative HSE framework. In this respect, directives have been drawn up for occupational health and safety. These directives set out TOTAL’s requirements in these areas for personnel working on its sites.
In 2013, the three business segments increased their efforts in terms of the reference frameworks of the HSE management systems in order to provide greater overall consistency, while at the same time respecting the businesses’ specific characteristics.
Indicators are used to measure the main results in these areas and monthly reporting of occupational incidents is used to monitor performance at both the global and site level. The Group does not differentiate between the safety of its employees and employees of external contractors (as defined in point 5. of this chapter). The indicators below include incidents and hours worked by the Group’s employees and those of external contractors.
For more than ten years, the TRIR and the LTIR have declined continuously. In 2014, the TRIR for TOTAL employees was 1.1 compared with 1.3 in 2013 and the TRIR for the employees of external contractors was 1.5 in 2014 compared with 1.7 in 2013. The 2014 severity injury rate decreased compared to 2013. The increase in 2013 compared to 2012 was related to a helicopter accident that resulted in the extended absence from work of fourteen employees.
On October 20, 2014, an airplane accident upon takeoff from an airport in Russia resulted in the death of Mr. de Margerie and the crew members. An investigation was undertaken by the competent Russian authorities (MAK) together with experts from the French Office of Investigations and Analysis (Bureau d’Enquêtes et d’Analyses – BEA). Its findings will not be known for several months.
In 2014, the Group experienced nine accidents that led to nine fatalities. The number of fatalities per million hours worked (Fatality Incident Rate) calculated over a three-year rolling basis is as follows: 0.025 in 2012; 0.022 in 2013 and 0.024 in 2014.
The Group’s safety efforts are focused at the same time on preventing major accidents and accidental spills (refer to points 2.2.3. of this chapter and 2.2. of chapter 4), occupational accidents (see below) and transport accidents (refer to point 3.3. of this chapter). They cover both TOTAL employees and employees of external contractors. These efforts are coordinated by the Group’s Industrial Safety Division and put into practice by the Group’s entities, particularly the HSE departments.
Since 2010, the basic rules to be scrupulously followed by all personnel, employees and contractors alike, in all of the Group’s lines of business worldwide, have been set out in a safety document entitled “Safety at Work: TOTAL’s Twelve Golden Rules”. According to the Group’s internal statistics, in more than 80% of severe incidents or near misses with high severity potential in the workplace, at least one of the Golden Rules had not been followed. The proper application of these Golden Rules, and more generally of all occupational safety procedures, is verified through site visits and internal audits. World Day for Safety at Work on April 28, 2015 will be dedicated to the Golden Rules and will be an opportunity to assess their dissemination and knowledge in the field five years after their introduction. Regular presentations and seminars are also organized with the employee representatives on the European Works Council to promote these rules.
In 2013, a worldwide safety campaign was launched in the Group in eighteen languages on the theme of commitment to safety: “TOTAL commitment for me, for you, for all”.
Moreover, the reporting of anomalies (959,000 in 2014) and near misses is strongly encouraged and monitored. The ability of each employee to identify anomalies or dangerous situations is a measure of the personnel’s involvement and vigilance in accident prevention and reflects the safety culture level within the Group. In order to strengthen this safety culture level, the reporting of anomalies and best practices was chosen as the theme of World Day for Safety at Work in 2014. An investigation is generally launched in response to any type of accident whatsoever. The method and depth of investigation depend on the actual or potential severity level. For example, a near miss with a high severity potential level is treated in the same way as a severe incident: its analysis is considered to be a key driving force for progress and, depending on its relevance to the Group’s other entities, triggers a safety alert and even the dissemination of a feedback report.
The Group’s directives are equally demanding with regard to employee health. In particular, the Group’s companies are expected to prepare a formal occupational risk assessment (chemical, physical, biological, ergonomic or psychosocial), create a risk management action plan and ensure medical monitoring of staff in line with the risks to which they are exposed. Two main indicators are monitored yearly:
In 2014, there was a 23% increase in recorded illnesses compared to 2013 with respect to the main occupational illnesses identified at TOTAL:
- musculoskeletal disorders, the main cause of occupational illness, representing 57% of all recorded illnesses in 2014. This figure increased by 65% compared with 2013, proving that specific action plans to control risk and improve working conditions, must be maintained over the long-term;
- illnesses related to asbestos exposure, which decreased by 10% compared with 2013, in line with the continuous decline over several years due to the absence of recent exposure;
- illnesses related to noise exposure. A Medical Advisory Committee meets regularly to discuss key health issues that may affect the Group. It consists of external scientific experts and brings together TOTAL’s management team and those at the Group affected by these issues. This Committee, which provides scientific monitoring of health problems that could impact the Group, enables the best health protection strategies to be put in place, when necessary.
In support of the Group’s health policy and to complement the periodic medical surveillance scheme currently in place, TOTAL set up an employee health observatory which is responsible for keeping track over the long term of any medical conditions potentially affecting employees based on employee category. This program can help to identify the emergence of certain health problems and, if applicable, suggest and oversee the appropriate preventive actions. By the end of 2014, fourteen of the Group’s sites in Europe had signed up for the observatory, which monitors approximately 13% of the Group’s employees worldwide.
At the same time, eight French sites give their employees a questionnaire to complete when they have periodic medical check- ups, which are used to measure the impact of the reaction to the stress factors to which they may be exposed.
On a broader level, TOTAL is associated with promoting individual and collective health in the countries where it operates (including flu vaccination campaigns and prevention and screening programs for certain diseases, such as AIDS, cancer and malaria, for employees, their families and local communities). Awareness campaigns relating to lifestyle risks in particular have also been in place for several years (including, for example, anti-smoking and anti-drinking campaigns, musculoskeletal disorder prevention programs). Through its Exploration & Production and Marketing & Services activities, TOTAL is present in West Africa, which has been affected by an Ebola epidemic since March 2014. The Group has set up a special steering Committee tasked with coordinating efforts with support from an international network of doctors and in conjunction with national and international health authorities. At the Group’s companies located in the affected countries, measures have been taken to inform employees about the disease and prevent and detect it in order to provide them with a high level of protection.
TOTAL decided to give €500,000 to the French Red Cross to help fight the epidemic. The agreement allows the French NGO and its national counterparts to develop emergency programs in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, the three countries most affected by the virus. The financial support provided by TOTAL is evenly distributed among the three countries.
To the Group’s knowledge, none of TOTAL’s employees or their family members have been infected by the Ebola virus to date.