Controlling the impact of the Group’s activities
In order to better control the impact of the Group’s operations, the societal approach is integrated into its operational processes.
Since 2012, societal issues have been integrated into Exploration & Production’s and Refining & Chemical’s HSE management systems, known as MAESTRO (Management and Expectations Standards Towards Robust Operations). Seven audits were conducted within the Exploration & Production division in 2014 (Algeria, Gabon, Indonesia, Italy, Myanmar, Nigeria and the Netherlands). In total, these audits have given rise to sixty-seven recommendations and will help support efforts to improve control of the societal impacts of the Group’s operations. The HSE approach has been extended to H3SE (Health, Safety, Security, Society, Environment), with Societal and Security being added to Safety.
Understanding the social context: baseline studies
To gain a better understanding of the socioeconomic context, it is first necessary to conduct a baseline study. On average, these studies last between three and six months and are generally accompanied by a consultation phase involving local stakeholders. In the onshore Neuquen basin in Argentina, the baseline study lasted more than six months during 2014.
As part of the Azero exploration Block in Bolivia, a socioeconomic baseline study is currently underway over an area of 786,000 hectares on which exploration work will take place. This area includes six indigenous Guarani territories, fifty Quechua communities, eleven municipalities and two parks (one national and the other regional). This study will make it possible to launch a dialogue with all these new stakeholders at an early stage of activities. To undertake this action, the subsidiary’s societal team is growing stronger, in particular by recruiting new CLOs.
Avoid, reduce, compensate: impact studies
In Exploration & Production, impact studies are carried out before any operation in accordance with TOTAL’s standards. In 2014, such studies were conducted or launched, for example in Mauritania (prior to the drilling of a deep offshore exploration well), in Myanmar (new deep offshore exploration block) and in Uganda. For the Group’s other activities, impact studies are conducted on a case-by-case basis.
Within the context of the eleven new offshore exploration blocks acquired in Brazil, the terms of reference of the impact studies are currently being defined.
As part of the redevelopment of offshore production at the Bul Hanine and Al Khalij fields in Qatar, the state-owned company Qatar Petroleum has asked TOTAL to conduct impact studies.
In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Total E&P RDC became an operator in Block III of the Graben Albertine. TOTAL made the commitment not to carry out any exploration activity in the Virunga national park, partly located in Block III. In agreement with the national Congolese authorities and in compliance with the Group’s own internal rules, a human rights and conflict probability assessment was conducted in 2013 and 2014 by the International Alert NGO, specialized in conflict-related studies. This assessment was carried out in parallel with the environmental and social impact assessment study, which was conducted from September 2012 to June 2013 and involved two visits to the block. The results of this study were made public to the representatives of the local population, the local authorities and NGOs in October 2014. TOTAL has committed to applying its recommendations.
In Uganda, Total E&P Uganda is in particular operator of Block EA1. According to Ugandan law, TOTAL is not required to carry out an impact assessment until the government has approved the project. However, Total E&P Uganda has asked a team of international and national experts to perform a number of social screening studies. The results of these studies led to significant changes in the project to avoid or minimize the impact on the communities living close to future facilities. The specifications for the environmental and social impact study for the Buliisa development project have been written. TOTAL has been working together with the international organization SNV since 2012 to develop agricultural diagnostics based on a methodology developed by French agricultural engineers (AgroParisTech). The study consists of a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the most important agricultural value chains present in the area covered by the exploration block (maize, cassava, rice, honey, vegetables and dairy products). The aim is to provide support for the existing agricultural systems and help accelerate development by making it easier for traditional rural communities to gain access to major national buyers (tools, training and contact platform, purchasing center, storage sites).
In Nigeria, research commissioned since 2008 to the Advanced High School of Economic and Commercial Sciences / Institute for Research and Education in Negotiation in Europe (ESSEC / IRENE) on the impact of oil production activities on people living in the Niger Delta, and involving field surveys and interviews with the concerned populations (Onelga and Eastern Obolo), has been finalized and consolidated. Two surveys conducted in 2008 and 2012 have made it possible to perform better assessments of the area and monitor the evolution of indicators.
In addition, the Group regularly uses CDA, an independent, non-profit organization, to assess the impact of its operations and socioeconomic programs in host countries. For example, CDA conducted an evaluation mission in Myanmar in November 2014. The corresponding results are available online on the organization’s website.
Finally, the Management Operational Societal Tool (MOST), originally introduced in 2011 to assist in the management of local development projects by subsidiaries, has expanded in scope. The tool is now deployed in sixteen sites in thirteen countries and is used to manage other aspects of societal projects: relations with stakeholders (contacts, events, issues), site-related grievances, land acquisitions, compensation relating to the Group’s industrial activity, temporary employment during seismic survey campaigns. The use of this tool forms part of the process of increasing the professionalism of local teams and introducing better structured reporting to serve as a basis for the analysis of societal performance.
Handling grievances from local communities
In Exploration & Production, subsidiaries are progressively setting up grievance mechanisms for local communities impacted by industrial projects. Inspired by the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business & Human Rights, a guide covering this procedure for the handling of grievances was drawn up and published in August 2013. This procedure is an integral part of the societal management plan and represents a concrete expression of the first requirement of the Group’s societal directive. For example, a dedicated mechanism for the handling of grievances was introduced in Uruguay as part of stakeholder communications as early as the seismic campaign (exploration phase). This plan, which was drawn up by the subsidiary’s societal team, is supported by the presence in the field of a CLO who is a member of the local community. Similarly, in Uganda, dedicated grievance handling mechanisms based on the local presence of CLOs have been prepared or existing plans have been updated as part of the overall societal management plan.
In 2012, IPIECA, working in combination with the Triple Alliance agency, launched seven pilot projects to improve the management of the processes used to gather and handle grievances. Total E&P Congo was chosen to participate in one of these pilot studies. This process is consistent with a desire to enhance the dialogue between Total E&P Congo and the Djeno community, in order to avert societal risks and foster the proactive and responsible management of the subsidiary’s operations. Following various missions undertaken by Triple Alliance in 2012 and 2013, Total E&P Congo has developed a new procedure for gathering and handling grievances and this was introduced in 2014.
In 2014, Marketing & Services published a brochure designed to raise awareness of grievance management issues in order to allow the segment’s subsidiaries and operating sites to get familiar with this subject and introduce systems for the handling of grievances separate from those used to deal with commercial complaints. This mechanism is currently being tested in a number of subsidiaries. It should encourage the rapid expansion of this good practice through the adaptation of the existing procedures.
Managing impacts: road safety, a priority
As a key element of safety-management, road safety is one of the Group’s main societal priorities.
Consequently, TOTAL launched a sweeping inspection program for its transporters in Africa and the Middle East in 2012. This improvement program goes beyond merely auditing, in that the transporters are assisted in improving their transport management systems in order to achieve compliance with the safety requirements set out by TOTAL. In order to ensure objectivity, this initiative benefits from the support of independent transport experts. These inspections are based on four interdependent audit items: driver training, the technical standards met by the vehicle fleets, itinerary management, and the existence of a management system. They enable a dialogue to be started with the transporters and lead to an assessment which, if necessary, is followed up by an improvement plan. In such cases, a follow-up inspection performed the following year enables the validation of the improvements made. Alternatively, if the requested progress has not been achieved, these inspections may result in the termination of the contract. More than 90% of the transporters contracted to the subsidiaries of Marketing & Services in Africa-Middle East were inspected between December 2012 and October 2014. 70% obtained a rating complying with TOTAL’s standards and requirements. The contracts of those who did not meet the expected standards within six months were terminated. Thus, at end 2014, 28% of the contracts of inspected transporters were terminated (i.e. 90 out of 326). Some rare exceptions were granted a derogation to be reinspected. In 2014, 66 initial and 101 follow-up inspections were performed. Even at this stage in the project, it has already been possible to note a fall in the number of accidents, the optimization of truck rotation, and improved profitability which has allowed transporters to modernize their fleets. This approach has made it possible to gather the best available practices and has led to the production of a booklet intended for all transporters.
As of 2013, the Africa-Middle East division has implemented a light vehicles policy which has been deployed in all the subsidiaries of the region. It sets out the requirements for vehicles owned or hired by the Group entities. This policy introduces or serves as a reminder of safety regulations, including the need to use suitable, roadworthy vehicles, improvements of drivers’ skills and behavior, the analysis of traffic risks, itinerary management and the feedback of information about events and dangerous situations. Various criteria (ABS, age and mileage, airbag, safety belts, onboard computers, etc.) have been identified to enable the monitoring of the conscientious application of these rules. The result has been the early renewal of the vehicle fleet to ensure compliance. Almost all of the vehicles now comply with requirements. In order to ensure these rules are effectively complied with, the procedure provides for preventive driving training every two years and annual awarenessraising sessions at which drivers can share their experiences. The analysis of traffic risks, together with the events and dangerous situations reported by drivers, are key elements in evaluating driving practices and ensuring the continuous improvement of the procedure.
In line with the United Nations resolution on the decade of action for road safety, TOTAL has signed a partnership with the World Bank relating to the introduction of the African Road Safety Corridors Initiative (ARSCI), a scheme intended to improve road safety and reduce accidents and the number of victims on two cross-border road corridors characterized by particularly high fatality levels. Bringing together a number of private and public partners, collaboration within the ARSCI project has helped to identify the northern corridor (linking Mombasa to Kampala) and the central corridor (between N’Djamena and Douala).
In 2012, to help mobilize the public and private sectors as well as the associations that are active in the field, TOTAL set up an independent organization known as Safe Way Right Way (SWRW). It aims at uniting and mobilizing partners in order to raise funds and implement actions and awareness campaigns in cooperation with the authorities, all of this with a view to improving regulations and their implementation. Through SWRW, TOTAL is working together with partners in Kenya, Cameroon and Uganda to encourage the development of road safety initiatives. In 2014, awareness campaigns were organized in Kenya as part of the road safety week and a special day dedicated to the commemoration of victims of road accidents. In Cameroon, nearly 100,000 people were made aware of traffic risks via the safety caravan. Further activities have also been undertaken in partnership with police forces: in Kenya, a benchmark study has made it possible to identify 160 accident black spots together with the reasons that make them so dangerous. The resulting map, which has been provided to the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure, should lead to measures such as the installation of road signs. It has also been made publicly available on the SWRW website. Also in cooperation with the police, a speed reduction campaign in Uganda has led to the donation of speed cameras accompanied by training events and activities designed to make users aware of road hazards.
To be as effective as possible in the deployment of its programs, TOTAL is inspired by the partnership-oriented approach adopted by the Global Road Safety Partnership (GRSP) of which it has been a member since 1999. This public-private partnership has the aim of improving road safety. Launched in 2005, the Global Road Safety Initiative (GRSI), funded by five members of the GRSP including TOTAL, focuses on the development of pilot projects which are based on a model and methodology developed by the GRSP with the objective of being replicable across the regions in question. This is the case of the “Safe to school – Safe to home” project which was developed in partnership with the local authorities in Mohammedia in Morocco as well as in Lusaka in Zambia. Thanks to a study and a number of workshops, it has been possible, in particular, to identify risk areas and then run awareness campaigns to make the journey between home and school safer. Again within the framework of the GRSI, two seminars organized in South Africa and the Philippines on the subject “safer cities for children” have provided a forum in which to share concrete experiences and discuss good practices.
The “road safety cube”: a tool for raising awareness among children
The “safety cube”, a distinctive large box housing play-oriented teaching equipment, is a method of spreading the road safety awareness and training campaign to schools. The safety cube is installed by the Group’s subsidiaries in the Africa-Middle East region in partnership with Education and Transport ministries and local NGOs and its deployment owes much to the considerable efforts made by employees. In the region, the program is constantly gaining ground and the number of subsidiaries that have contributed a cube has now reached thirty (four additional subsidiaries in 2014). Based on this success, the cube has now also been welcomed in other countries, in particular in Asia where pilot models have already been installed. This has also encouraged other ambitious initiatives such as the opening, in late 2013, of the Children’s Road Safety Education Center (Senegal) using this cube to train the young people of Dakar in the field of road safety by means of a life-size road circuit.
In 2014, nearly 300,000 children were familiarized with the dangers of the road thanks to the “safety cube” and other road safety programs.
In France, the Group also pays considerable attention to the issue of road safety. In order to raise awareness among young people aged from 15 to 24 years (who are the age group most likely to suffer road accidents), TOTAL has, as of 1995, contributed to the “10 de Conduite Jeune” training operation for young drivers in cooperation with the French national police, Groupama and Renault. Four different routes travel across France every year during the school term in order to raise awareness of the risks associated with alcohol, tiredness and dangerous behavior. Thanks to this initiative, more than 10,000 school students aged between 14 and 18 years benefit from theoretical and practical training every year.